PhD in Economics from Harvard, where he specialized in Political Economy. He lectured at Harvard, at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and is now a Professor at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa and a researcher for the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) in London. His research has been published in several reviews and academic publications, including Princeton University Press, Harvard University Press, MIT Press and Oxford University Press, and commented in Time magazine and New York Times, Handelsblatt, La Repubblica, Expresso and Público. He was the corrdinator for study “Cultura e Desenvolvimento: Um Guia para os Decisores”, ordered by the Portuguese government, and also “Dinâmica e Desempenho Empresarial: Municípios, Instituições e Custos de Contexto”, and “Fundos Europeus: Instituições, Desenvolvimento Económico e Coesão Social” for the Francisco Manuel dos Santos Foundation.